We are in a modern era, technology is advancing to the limit, and as proof of this is the invention of drones, aircraft that are piloted remotely from the ground, without the need to be crewed; Although it seems like a recent invention, its beginnings are from the nineteenth century, of course, with great advances and incredible improvements that make you wonder if it is reality, or pure fiction today.
History of Drones since 1849
In July 1849, one of the first uses of these crewless aircraft was recorded by the Austrians. It happened after two hundred bomb-mounted hot air balloons were launched in Venice. Almost two decades after the USA’s Civil War, these balloons were flown over for reconnaissance missions by the confederation and union forces.
Then in 1896, Samuel P. Langley began developing a series of steam-powered aircraft without the need for a pilot; and by 1898, the drones, or crewless aircraft; they are used in the practice of aerial surveillance; It arose in the Spanish-American War, where the first aerial reconnaissance photographs were taken without pilots.
This fact led to the use of drones mainly by military forces, at the beginning of the 20th century, especially in the interwar periods and in the Second World War. These drones were designed primarily as flying bombs. Their main objective was to destroy enemy lines; this drone, in the war against terrorism, has long been a weapon that combines surveillance capacity and assassination capacity.
Thanks to the tremendous technological advances, from the telegraph, then the radio, and so on, the revolution in the field of telecommunications is taking place. Nikola Tesla demonstrated at the end of the 19th century in New York, for the first time what the remote control, or radio control of a vehicle, was and how it worked and thus, with this, modern robotics began, and especially for back then to a huge military advance.
In 1916, in the United Kingdom, Captain Archibald M. Low of the Royal Flying Corps supervised a pilotless, remotely controlled, and explosive-equipped aircraft.
So far, I have told you a little about the history of drones, and I can follow throughout the article; but sometimes so much information could bore you, and if I give it to you all in a single piece; so I better give you the reason why drones began to be invented; And it is that during World War II,
there was a loss of forty thousand airplanes and eighty thousand crew members and this was reason more than enough to form a mechanical air force in the United States, mainly a human question, to avoid the loss of more lives of soldiers. It was also for financial reasons; the loss of the airplanes added a great amount of money.
In 1964, the US had already launched unmanned aircraft in sensitive areas, the scenes of the Cold War, that is, to Cuba, North Korea, and the People’s Republic of China; Although China affirmed the use of these aircraft without pilots, the US denied it, and it was decades later that this was confirmed because the Iranians had also captured a plane without a CIA pilot. Over the years, these drones were improved until they were made and turned into what we know today, they are no longer only for military use, but there is also professional and civilian use.
It is in February 2002, when the CIA uses the Predator drone for the first time to eliminate an intelligence target; This was carried out in Afghanistan, and if you think that I am already boring you, I will tell you that that objective was nothing more and nothing less than Osama Bin Laden (that was believed); And that is how the decade of the drone as such begins; with a little more publicity since they had it well guarded.
If you do not know how these drones are today; capable of flying without a crew, but using a pilot who controls them from the ground; do not worry, because I will continue to tell you about this wonderful invention, which has become extremely important; not only for the military who now have drones that fit in the palm of their hand but for ordinary people, like you and me; for land workers and the media; as well as for amateurs and endless uses that you can give to drones according to their type.
The main idea that gave rise to drones remains the same today; only now it covers a little more, an unmanned plane or helicopter; allows you to fly and reach risky places without risking your life; and to be able to carry out different actions with this device, as I told you in addition to military use; they are already within reach of civil service; for photography professionals, for the cinema, for photogrammetry, security; for so many other free time things, exploring, racing with other drones and even for stunts and tricks.
Classification of drones
Drones are classified according to their rank and resistance, such as; some with a close range of about 50 km and with a resistance time of one to six hours, those with a short range of 150 km, with a resistance of eight to twelve hours; the mid-range ones that are high speed and with a working radius of 650km; and those that have a 36-hour endurance and can operate at altitudes of 30,000 feet.
Also, drones can be classified according to their use and size, those for military service and those for professional civil use; those for commercial and amateur use.
Regarding their size, they are classified in Class I: micro, mini or small drones; class II: tactical drones; and class III: strategic drones.
We will start talking about military drones; since they were the ones who gave rise to this technology, and currently, its use in the air forces is more common for reconnaissance and surveillance missions. However, they are also equipped with additional weapons and bombs to the cameras. But let’s dig a little deeper in the next section.
Types of Military Drones
The military drones are called “Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle,” known by their initials UCAV. It translates into Spanish as Unmanned Air Combat Vehicles; This type of drone is for the exclusive use of the air forces and the CIA and is called combat drones, or military drones.
They are armed so that the army uses them as a lethal weapon and to carry out bombings; By not having to carry a pilot, they are widely used to protect the life of a soldier but simultaneously take the enemy’s life. If they are shot down, there is no human life to regret, nor significant monetary loss since compared to airplanes, these drones are much cheaper.
The combat drone must be piloted from the mainland, and the pilot is a soldier or several at the same time who will be in charge of viewing the images. In contrast, one pilot, the other manipulates the visual sensors, and in case of detecting a threat, they can shoot the gun and take the life of the enemies. The use of drones is a national security strategy.
In countries like the US, drones conduct selective assassinations with the MQ-1 Predator; this military drone reaches 135 miles per hour. To give you an estimate of deaths caused by combat drones, there are statistics from the year 2013, where the United States Department of Defense would have about 3,900 deaths, in 422 attacks in Pakistan, all remotely operated, and worst, to I don’t think so, since I am an ordinary civilian; is that at the end of 2015 killer drones have been used about five hundred times to kill and the number has been considerably high.
With these figures, we can see that the military force’s regular violence, with technology, is separated from the human feeling, that touch that makes us men and women with conscience and feelings, and not made of stone.
Military drones could cause, (if they have not already caused it), that humanity completely detaches itself from its conscience, and as is this case; that the brutality of taking lives left and right without the right to defend themselves is shared, like someone who steps on a cockroach and does not regret doing it.
Although you could tell me a lot that human beings are already killing each other because there are many weapons and many ways in which a military man takes the life of another military man, “his enemy,” the drones make a difference; I have not been in this situation, but I know that a video war game could be compared, but in this case, it would be natural deaths.
The violence of drones is far superior to all the ways that man has invented to destroy ourselves, but it cannot be denied that there were more human losses in hand-to-hand combat; civilian casualties have also been minimized during legitimate military attacks.
However, even today, today many have a conscience; and for this reason, there have been reports of military drone operators; who have post-traumatic stress disorder; The result of long hours operating the combat drone in front of a monitor that shows the results of these military operations shows the murder, and worse everything that remains after the process, that is, corpses.
Of course, this is not compared to what war veterans suffer; violence directly on the battlefield.
CLASS I (<150 KG): MICRO, MINI OR SMALL DRONES
Micro and mini drones have dimensions of 30 to 50 centimeters long, and their shape are like that of an insect with wings, but they are also both flapped and rotating; they are very light and are used for spying. To mention a few examples, the Israeli mosquito IAI Malat measures 35 cm and has a resistance of forty minutes; another is the US Aurora Flight Sciences Skate measures 60 cm and a length of 33 cm.
The little ones have a dimension greater than 50 centimeters and less than two meters; small drones are generally based on the fixed-wing model, and to mention some; The meter-long RQ-11 Raven from US Aero Environment and the United States Army is the drone called La Sombra RQ-7.
CLASS II (150-600 KG): TACTICAL DRONES
Class II tactical drones are pretty heavy; they measure less than an airplane, about five to ten meters, and can be used as drones with 100 to 200 kg payloads. The medium fixed-wing drones are the UK vigilante and the Israeli-American hunter. The latter measures 10.2 meters and 6.9 meters long, with 885 kg when taking off.
CLASS III (> 600 KG): STRATEGIC DRONES
Strategic drones are class III and are mainly used in military operations, weighing more than 600kg. Some examples are the famous Predator and the North American Northrop Grumman Global Hawk.
Types of civil drones
Civil drones or UAVs, by their initials in English “Unmanned Air Vehicle,” or unmanned aerial vehicles, are those drones that have no military application. Of course, they do not come equipped with any weapons or bombs, and although they represent only 11% of the industry, they are increasingly used by civilians. They have been adapted to the needs of their audience, be they professionals or amateurs.
There are many advantages that a drone can offer you, and the civil use of these is increasing due to the multiple functions that these can perform without having to be manned but from the comfort of home.
Putting out forest fires without putting the life of an operator in danger; carry out exhaustive cartography work; fly many hours, use it for surveillance and security; or to be able to appreciate, capture, and record landscapes from a view that you would not be able to reach even because you use a plane.
The images that this drone gives you are of such superior quality; that not even because you go in a plane to photograph them, you will be able to obtain the closeness and sharpness in the images or videos; Also, the drones can be equipped for other uses such as spraying and monitoring your harvest.
The civil use of drones right now in 2017 is increasing, especially in television and movies; the media use drones to give viewers such realistic camera angles that give you the feeling that you are there, for example, at a televised soccer game.
As for the paparazzi; They are also making use of these drones, or specifically mini drones, to get a good photo of that famous person; Without being perceived by the same, just as the mini drones perfectly fit the needs of the paparazzi, there are many types of drones to please the customer; in their different requirements and professions.
Fixed-wing drones, drones with multiple rotors, tricopters, quadcopters, also with different construction materials such as plastic, the most common for entry or initiation drones; those of fiberglass, with an accessible price and those of carbon fiber, the best in the market; but with a slightly higher price; Likewise, the quality of the sensors will vary, and everything will be in your personal preferences when purchasing a drone.
FIXED WING DRONES
Fixed-wing drones are equipped with electric motors, they can stay in the air for several hours, they are ideal for carrying out large-area work; And compared to drones in the form of helicopters, these can remain in the air with the engine off, thanks to their wings that allow it to glide, and this can put it to safety if the motor fails, returning to the landing point.
They are the most used in surveillance because their fixed-wing characteristic does not produce noise; Although this same advantageous characteristic is also a disadvantage because it must always be in motion while the multirotor can remain static and go up and down without displacement.
They remember the toy helicopters that years ago we boys and adults preferred because they were the faithful and exact copy of helicopters. Still, on a reduced scale, the best thing was that we could drive them with the remote control; that way, we would compete with friends and perform maneuvers from the ground while we watched our toy helicopter fly.
Through the years, with this of the drones; Although they are primarily of a quadcopter design, which means that they have four propellers and are shaped like a spider, some companies have decided to keep the traditional helicopter design; but of course, adding features of these modern drones, such as the ability to record and photograph, thanks to its integrated camera; and they also included some flight modalities.
So that toy that we liked so much, now we like it much more because we can photograph and record whatever we want; If you had such a toy helicopter, it’s time for you to try the drone helicopter; they have stable flight; They are constructed of a durable material and emit powerful radio frequencies.
Helicopter drones have two speeds, a slower one so that you can use it indoors, very good because inside, your helicopter drone is not subjected to environmental factors such as the blowing of the wind; and the other speed is the one used outdoors because the helicopter drone requires more power.
Due to their small size, these helicopter drones use AA batteries, but the device itself is charged by USB cable; the flight autonomy that it allows is eight minutes. It is worth mentioning that the characteristics may vary depending on the model you purchase; there are many on the market, from the most accessible to the most expensive.
TRICOPTERS AND QUADCOPTERS
The tricopter drones are those that have three propellers that propel it upwards and facilitate its movement and handling; They have three arms of the same length that start from the center of the device; they are 120 ° apart; At the end of each component, there is a motor with propellers placed on top and a sensor to rotate; this sensor recognizes the changes in place to communicate them to the electronic control. They come equipped with a camera.
On the other hand, quadcopters drones have four arms and also four rotors, those motors that make the propellers rotate; it is said to be much more efficient than a helicopter and a tricopter; in addition to being able to raise the power more quickly; Not to mention its ability to fly; that in a static position, it becomes more useful in times of tasks that require greater precision; such as inspection work or film filmography for the cinema; this makes quadcopters convenient for some jobs.
In addition to these drones, there are also those with more rotors, for example, the Hexa-octocopters, which are slower. However, they are the most stable, and if there are difficulties with a propeller, the rest will cover it, and the device will continue to fly.
DRONES WITH GPS
Most drones have a GPS, these offer you information on the exact point where it is, you can also program routes thanks to this GPS so that your drone flies alone, and you can concentrate on the photographs, and the experience is more rewarding if your drone includes FPV goggles; In addition to this, you can also program the way back home, so that when you do not know how to bring it back, your drone if it knows the way, it is enough to save the point from which it has taken off so that it returns there when indicated.
Drones with GPS also provide you with other information of interest, such as the height at which it is located, the exact location as already said, the current that the battery is using, among other things.
CAMERA DRONES FOR PHOTOGRAPHY AND VIDEO
Drones for civilian use have become popular, it is thanks to the cameras incorporated in them, today people are very interested in photographing everything they can, they are looking for a unique photo, perhaps through social networks; The truth is that, if you are just an amateur, the drone will give you an excellent experience of capturing images and aerial videos; however drones with cameras are used in film and television, in addition to advertising.
These cameras offer an excellent quality aerial shot thanks to the gimbal. You can get a perfect shot. It allows you to reach different angles, and regardless of whether you are a professional photographer or a novice, I assure you that your photographs will be spectacular.
The option to record videos is another widely used; especially in these drones for civil use; that even at weddings they can be accommodating; imagine an aerial shot of that moment when you say yes; apart this modality is also widely used in film and television and by journalists who are after a news story.
Although many have a hobby is to photograph landscapes, others use their drone to compete; those people who like adrenaline, and are tired of video games; acquire a competition drone to have a reality mounted, through glasses or monitors, they will observe their drone during the competition, almost feeling that they are flying.
You must have enough reflex, maneuverability, and strategy in these drone races; Also, to enter to compete, you must have a good quality drone that meets the need, it must have total aerodynamics and have the necessary power to exceed the speed of the other drones that are competing with you.
DRONES FOR STUNTS AND TRICKS
Just as there are competition drones, there are also those who like to perform stunts and tricks to see their drones up high doing more than recording and photographing; This ability to maneuver both vertically and horizontally is allowed by specific types of drones, and there are some drones that focus on these characteristics and have the ability to do cartwheels and aerial tricks so you can show off in style.
It is important to know that you should start with entry drones because most of the time, these crash and burn in the attempts of maneuvers or tricks; drones trained for this; They have special sensors and motors that give the upward or downward thrust, it all depends on the orientation; They have three different flight modes; They can perform fork turns, 180-degree turns, or full 360-degree turns.
GASOLINE AND NITRO OPERATED DRONES
Just as gasoline is used in all types of vehicles over the years, it can also be used in drones; these are powered by gas to move quickly through the skies without waiting for any battery to charge. ; They are heavier, but this weight helps you keep steady drone in high wind conditions; And the best thing is that these drones used with gasoline or nitro fly for thirty minutes or more and also have several sensors incorporated, and the most important, the camera to be able to live the flight experience up close.
Although they are tough to find in the market, there are different types that you can look for if you are interested in controlling a gasoline drone from the ground; In my opinion, I see no need, since electric drones offer you practically the same experience or even better; because these gasoline-powered ones cannot maneuver as much as electric drones.
Drones for commercial uses
The commercial uses of drones have been mentioned bit by bit throughout the article; However, there are other commercial uses that I want to talk to you about, but not before telling you about the importance of drones in the market.
These airplanes or unmanned aerial vehicles have acquired many prominences, especially in recent years, which have been allowed for civil use; it has spread to the business sector public and the general public.
Currently, there are many companies dedicated to manufacturing drones, and more companies base their operations on drones for the recording of scenes or aerial photography, and little by little, drones have been endowed with more and more intelligence.
Drones are being used in various activities, such as civil protection, cartography, package delivery, border surveillance, citizen security, crop inspection, fire prevention, infrastructure review, healthcare, advertising, and film and television.
With so many commercial uses, there are increasingly companies that want to invest in the manufacture of drones, as it is believed that this will generate high income in the not too distant future; thus, the main objective is to improve autonomous and cooperative navigation, as well as flight autonomy.
Drones in civilian use already cover many tasks, but there is still a long way to go. Since their origin was military, the first impression of drones is that drones were murderous weapons for civilians. Still, once the design is modified, they are made available to civilians, hoping that the use is correct and not lends itself to illegal acts, such as unlawful spying .to steal.
The commercial uses in which these drones are being perfected are for the agricultural sector. Many say that the technology will destroy the planet, but in this case, it will benefit many because it is used to monitor crops, monitor the spread of diseases. Even with a Special drone, it can be fumigated without requiring the presence of the pilot, so you will not run the risk of poisoning with these insecticides and others. Not only in crops can it be used, but also to herd sheep and control the flocks.
Other uses that have not yet been given in themselves are the development of the distribution of medicine and the search for information about the state of a population, especially about the state of patients.
Among the commercial uses that I mentioned is that of transporting loads, it is a means that can be used today to transport different kinds of packages. Amazon has announced that they are allocating resources to develop drones that allow them to transport the merchandise they purchase. Likewise, Domino’s Pizza performs tests so that the food falls from the sky and that the delivery service is more efficient.
The cargo drones will be used to carry out other tasks, such as humanitarian tasks; In other words, there could be the possibility of transporting medicines, food, and not very heavy medical equipment to places that have suffered some natural tragedy or are isolated from civilization.
There are currently some models of drones capable of staying in flight with loads that weigh close to one kilogram. Although companies such as the Israeli Urban Aeronautics, which has designed and built an aircraft with a load capacity of 500 kg, they called it Airmule. It complies with transporting loads to places where helicopters cannot enter, although unfortunately, this drone can be mobilized only in a radius of 50km.
Although there are many interested in making cargo drones as common as courier vehicles, work is still being done on the distance they can travel and the weight they can carry from the cargo. However, as technology advances by leaps and bounds, while you’re reading this, they could be building that super-efficient cargo drone.
SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY DRONES
Another commercial use of drones is for security and surveillance; Since 2015, advanced high-security systems have been offered with drones, these are specially designed for the flight programmed by GPS, it is ideal for management, it is programmed through a Tablet, the route to be followed, the height and the delay time at each point on the perimeter. This drone is of high precision; it can perform flights at any size and speed.
It has a high definition camera that records with a stabilizer that neutralizes the vibratory movements of the drone and has a real-time transmission of 5.4Ghz with coverage of 1.5 to 2 km, the images received are of high quality; and when the round ends along the trajectory, you set for it; it automatically returns to the take-off point where it automatically lands.
DRONES FOR PHOTOGRAMMETRY
One of the commercial uses that provide the most helpful since the work is carried out in less time and without running any risk is topography and cartography using the photogrammetry technique to carry out three-dimensional surveying and volume calculation.
Thanks to cameras specially equipped to do this, with high-resolution photo and video capture, drones collect vital data, scan the area, mark a series of control points, and obtain fairly accurate calculations of the exact volume. And others, during this scan, the drone flies over the area, and as it captures the images, they will be processed with specific programs that allow you to obtain 3D and orthomosaic models.
Through the Geographic Information System (GIS) programs, the results can be processed to measure distance, coordinates, areas, and volumes; in addition to this, contour lines can be generated, elaborated Digital Elevation Models (MED), and performed profiles.
The use of drones for photogrammetry is of utmost importance; since the study areas are endless; They range from mines, landfills, quarries, monitoring of works, landfills, archeology, surveying, and cartography, and photogrammetric restitution.
The advantages are more than obvious. The drone will cover a lot of work in less time and without risking the life of the operator; for example, in the mining sector; there are so many risks that are run if the area is not well explored; as well as the great danger that surveyors run, with the possibility of slipping off high regions or sinking in the stockpile. The drone is beneficial and efficient for these jobs, thanks to photogrammetry.
As for spray drones, they are widely used primarily in the agricultural sector; They also have cameras to take care of the crop and differentiate the weeds to clean the land; This drone is called Agras MG-1 and is capable of spraying terrain at high speed from the air, it will be much more efficient than you did personally.
This spraying drone contains eight rotors necessary to support your cargo’s weight and includes the storage tank; it can store up to ten liters of liquid, covering up to approximately forty thousand square meters per hour. Using microwaves, it scans the crops and maintains the correct height to spray at eight meters per second. This can be done by a pilot or entirely automatically.
- How to Hack WiFi Password 2021? | Wifi Hack With Andriod Phone
- HOW TO CHECK YOUR CHILDREN’S CONVERSATIONS ON WHATSAPP
- IPL 2021 Live Streaming Online | Watch IPL 2021 Live Streaming in India for Free