A port is logical access channel between two devices which helps in their communication. A port is used to transfer the data.
There are total 65535 ports.
- Well Known Ports : 0 to 1023
- Registered port : 1024 to 49151
- Dynamic/private ports : 49152 to 65535
Some of the useful ports are:
|Port Name||Port Number|
Protocols is simply a set of rules which defines a standard way for exchanging information over a nerwork.
Most Commonly used protocol are:
1. Transmission Control Protocol(TCP):
TCP is one of the core part of IPS (internet protocols suite). Other one component is TCP stands for transmission control protocol. TCP provides the facilty to exchange the information or data directly between two hosts. Many major internet application like e-mail, file transfer etc. rely upon TCP. This protocol contains varity of flags like SYN, ACK, RST, FIN etc.
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2. Internet Protocol (IP):
Internet Protocol is other core part of IPS. IP is the main communication protocol with is used for exchanging packets over inter-network using IPS. IP is used to deliver packets from source to destination. Internet protocol is responsible for establishment of internet.
3. User Datagram Protocol (UDP):
User datagram protocol does not contain any flag. udp allows computer application to send message over internet protocol . In UDP data or message are considered as DATAGRAM. UDP was designed by David P. Reed in 1980.
Data on the internet is generally organized into standard TCP or a UDP packets. A packet is bunch of information. Different services use different port to exchange the information.
Primary Network Types:-
In LAN , a computer network cover small local area like home , office and small workgroups such asa school or university. Wi-Fi and Ethernet are commonly used for LAN.
2. Wide Area Network(WAN):
In WAN, a computer network cover larger area like on national or regional level. A wide area network can be used as local area network, metropolitan area network(MAN), or for campus area network (CAN).
3. Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN):
In WLAN, devices are connected wireless by the mechanism of wireless distribution method (OFDM Radio or any other). In WLAN generally a access point provides the connection and hence provide the user an ease of mobility.
WLAN is easy to install and maintain. however it became very popular these days with laptops and Personal Devices.
It had observed that at railway stations, malls hotels, etc. Are equipped with WLAN.
Important Terms Associated with Network:
PID stands for product identificaion number. PID is used to provide identification to a standalone system on a network. PID was developed to solve the problem of identification. In This, a unique id was hardcoded on the NIC (Network interface card). But due to producation of nic by more than one manufacture, conflicts were seen. Hence pid ws not much effciently used for identification.
2. MAC Address
Mac Address stands for Media Access control Address. MAC address is used 48bits hexa decimal number which is a unique number assigned to the network adaptors or NIC. Mac address is the combination of PID and CID (Company Identification number). mac address is also known as physical address.
3. IP Address
IP Address stands for internet protocols address. Ip address is used for addressing the network so that it can be detected and used for transferring the information or message.
IP address is of 32bits. The value of ip address is in numeric format.
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#Other Important Protocols:-
1. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP):
ARP is present in network layer (layer 3) of OSI model. It is used to resolve ip adresss into mac address.
2. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP):
DHCP lets the server automatically assign a ip address to the user system from a provided range of ip addresses.
DHCP server is available for windows as well as unix based operating systems. Many of the routers come with DHCP pre-configured.
3. Internet Control message protocol (ICMP):
ICMP is used for sending the error message indicating the host is unreachable or requested service is not available. ICMP Rely upon IP to perform its tasks.
Unlike TCP and UDP, it is not used for exchanging the information between two hosts. Generally, it is not used by the user network application.
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4. File Transfer Protocol(FTP):
File transfer protocol is a standard protocol used for transferring the files from one host to another over the tcp/ip based network connection. FTP is either used with authentication password or with anonymous access. FTP runs on port 21.
5. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP):
SMTP is the standard protocol used for exchanging the electronic mail (E-mail) across the ip networks. SMTP Uses port 25 on TCP
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